Doctorate in economics in Grenoble in 1960. Attaché, researcher and director of CNRS. Director of the Economic and Legal Institute of Energy (1968-1982), then of the Grenoble Institute of Energy Economics and Policy (1988 to 1990). Vice-president of Pierre Mendes-France University 1970-1980. Vice-president and general rapporteur of the Long Term Energy group of the general planning commission (1982-83). Technical advisor in the office of the Minister of Research and Technology (1984-86). President of the Grenoble European University and Scientific Center (1991-95).

Main publications:- Industrialization process and energy development in Brazil. Institute of Higher Studies in Latin America, Paris, 1966, 377 p.- The energy intensity of economic activity in industrialized countries: do very long-term developments provide useful lessons? Economies and Societies, EN series (4), 1988, p. 9-27.- The world energy economy. Paris: La Découverte, Collection Repères, 1990, 126 p. (Sadi Carnot Prize 1991 from the Technical Association for Energy Efficiency), translation into Arabic, Vietnamese, Portuguese.- Energy economy and policy. Paris: A.Colin, Cursus Collection, 1992, 192 p.- (in collaboration with B. Bourgeois and D. Finon). Energy and technological change. An evolutionary approach. Paris, Economica, 2000, 488 p.- Coal: the metamorphoses of an industry. Paris: Technip, 2008, 420 p.

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